• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Work with all your cloud files (Drive, Dropbox, and Slack and Gmail attachments) and documents (Google Docs, Sheets, and Notion) in one place. Try Dokkio (from the makers of PBworks) for free. Now available on the web, Mac, Windows, and as a Chrome extension!


Cahokia and Etzanoa, Pre-Contact Native American Cities

Page history last edited by Robert W. Maloy 6 days, 17 hours ago


 Native American History Cross Links




Pronounce Cahokia

Artist's Reconstruction of Monk's Mound at Cahokia.
Cahokia, located in present-day Illinois, was the center of what anthropologists call "Mississippian culture," agricultural communities throughout the Midwestern and southeastern United States between 1000 and 1400.


Cahokia is now the largest archaeological site in the United States



Link here for an Overview of Cahokia



  A Video from WTVP/PBS on Cahokia Mounds


  Back to the City of the Sun: An Augmented Reality Project


What is an Augmented Reality?

     Augmented Reality is a piece of technology created to help show something enhanced by technology in the real world.  In this instance visitors to the Cahokia site can use their phone cameras at specific locations and the program will show them what the Cahokia looked like in the spot they are currently standing.


For a perspective on Native American history in the Americas prior to European encounters, see Cahokia: Ancient America's Great City on the Mississippi, Timothy R. Pauketat, Viking, 2009.


See also, The Mississippians of Cahokia, John Hendrix, New York Times, February 28, 2016



Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site has been designated a world heritage site.


  • It had a population in excess of 10,000, with at least twenty to thirty thousand more in outlying towns and farming settlements that for fifty miles in every direction (Pauketat, 2009, p. 2).
    • Located just east of present-day St. Louis, Missouri.


  • North America's largest pyramidal-mound complex. "Monks Mound is larger at its base than the Great Pyramid of Khufu, Egypt's largest" ("Cahokia: America's Forgotten City," National Geographic, January, 2011, p. 138). Mounds were destroyed by the builders of St. Louis before the Civil War.
    • Monks Mound is filled with 50 million cubic feet of hand-moved dirt (Hendrix, 2016, p.13).


  • Construction has been radiocarbon dated to about 1050. The centerpiece was the size of 35 football fields, the Grand Plaza, the largest public space ever created north of Mexico.
    • At its center, a packed clay pyramid that would reach 100 feet high, surpassed only by the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan and the great pyramid at Cholula, in Mexico (Pauketat, 2009, p. 23).


Reconstructed Palisade at Cahokia
Reconstructed Palisade at Cahokia

Cahokia: America's Forgotten City, National Geographic (January 2011)

A Pre-Columbian American City from History Now


New Insights into the Curious Disappearance of the Cahokia Mounds Builders, St. Louis Public Radio


  Cahokia Mounds, Illinois Adventure, WTVP on YouTube


Mississippian Culture and Aztalan, Turning Points in Wisconsin History, Wisconsin Historical Society


Diagram shows solstice and equinox sunset and sunrise positions at the Mound 72 Woodhenge

external image Mound_72_Woodhenge_diagram_HRoe_2013.jpg

For more, see Cahokia Woodhenge




This site may surpass even Cahokia as the largest Native American settlement in the United States.


The Hidden Cities of North America


  • This documentary focuses not only on the hidden cities of North America, but discusses why citizens today know nothing about this hidden history of the United States.

Has a High School Student Discovered Long Lost 17th Century Civilization in Kansas?


Kansas Archaeologist Rediscovers Lost Native American City (NPR, May 10, 2017



Archaeological Digs Reveal More About Lost City of Etzanoa


Etzanoa: The Great Settlement, Wichita State University Alumni Magazine (May 2016)


Oriate Monument, Alcalde, New Mexico
Oriate Monument, Alcalde, New Mexico


There was a military encounter between Native Americans from Etzanoa and Spanish troops led by the conquistador Juan de Oriate in 1601.


Cannon fragments found at the site confirm the battle.



The Story of . . . Smallpox—And Other Eurasian Germs, from Guns, Germs and Steel website, PBS (2005)



Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.