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Immigration Gateways and Ports of Entry

Page history last edited by Robert W. Maloy 2 months, 3 weeks ago

Ports of Entry Sketch Note by Mae Humprhreville (September 2020)

Topics on the Page

 

 

Current Immigration Facts and Asylum in the United States

 

Historical Ports of Entry

 

  • Castle Island, New York City

 

  • Ellis Island, New York City

 

    • Annie Moore
    • Emma Lazarus

 

  • Sullivan's Island, South Carolina

 

  • Angel Island, San Francisco

 

  • Pelican Island, Galveston

 

  • Columbia River Quarantine Station

 

  • The American Mexican Border

 

Image on Wikimedia Commons

 

Current Facts

 

QUIZ:  See How Much You Know About Immigration in the United States, Council on Foreign Relations (July 2018)

 

There are 328 Ports of Entry to the United States.  Link here to locate a Port of Entry in your state

 

 

Asylum in the United States

 

Fact Sheet for Asylum in the United States, American Immigration Council (May 14, 2018)

 

Asylum in the United States:  A History, Southern Poverty Law Center

 

The Complicated History of Asylum in America--Explained, The Week (April 28, 2019)

 

 

 

 

   

Under current U.S. and international law, anyone who physically steps on U.S. soil is entitled to apply for asylum.

      • Asylum seekers must then pass a "credible fear" interview.

 

      • Immigration Agents then determine if the person(s) faces "significant possibility of persecution or harm in their home country

 

      • An immigration court makes the final decision

 

      • In 2018, 89% passed initial screening; under new Trump Administration rules, only 17% were granted asylum

 

Castle Garden, New York City (1855-1890)

 

external image Castle_garden_imigrant_depot-NYC.jpg

 


America's First Immigration Center. 8 million immigrants passed through the center before the opening of Ellis Island. Records can be searched at this site.

Beginning in 1855, it was the nation's only organized immigration center


Castle Clinton National Monument, National Park Service


Where Immigrants Came Before Ellis Island, New York Historical Society


Before Ellis Island Existed, Castle Garden Welcomed Houdini and Typhoid Mary, from Atlas Obscura (April 7, 2016)

  • Among those who entered where Harry Houdini, Mary Mallon (Typhoid Mary), Nikola Tesla, Emma Goldman, Joseph Pulitzer, and Frederich Trumpf (President Donald Trump's grandfather)


Link to Dramatic Event page on the Irish Potato Famine

 

Ellis Island, New York City (1892-1954)

 

  • 5000 to 10,000 people a day passed through between 1900 and 1914

 

external image 220px-Ellis_Island_in_1905.jpg

Ellis Island Immigration Footage 1906

 

Selected Images of Ellis Island Immigration, 1880-1920, Library of Congress

 

 Online Resources

 

From Ellis Island to Orchard Street, an online game set in 1916 from New York City Tenement Museum


Ellis Island Interactive Tour!

Lower East Side Tenement Museum Virtual Tour

 

 

Gittel's Journey:  An Ellis Island Story, Leslea Newman.  Illustrated by Amy June Bates

  • Picture book story of a young Jewish girl emigrating from Eastern Europe in the early 1990s

 

 

Links to Primary Sources from Ellis Island for students from the Parks Service.

Annie Moore

 

Statue of Annie Moore, Cobh, Ireland

 

Statue of Annie Moore, Ireland


Annie Moore: First Immigrant Through Ellis Island, from Ellis Island Foundation. See January 1, 1892, the first immigrant landed on Ellis Island

She is honored by two statutes, one in Cobh, Ireland and the other at Ellis Island.

Story of the First Through Ellis Island Is Rewritten, New York Times (September 14, 2006).

She did come to New York City from Ireland at age 15, but she did not, however, go west to Texas to pursue the American Dream only to meet a tragic death in a streetcar accident at age 46. Instead she had 11 children (only 5 lived to adulthood) and lived a poor immigrant's life on the Lower East Side, dying at age 50.

 


Annie Moore is memorialized in the song "Isle of Hope, Isle of Tears" by the group Celtic Thunder. Hear the song sung by Ronan Tynan on YouTube

 


Life of First Ellis Island Immigrant Revealed, NPR (September 15, 2006)

 


Lesson plan on How People Came to America, part of American History's 'Preparing for the Oath'.

 

Emma Lazarus

 

For Information about Emma Lazarus, link to Late 19th Century Immigration to the United States

 

 

 

 

Sullivan's Island, South Carolina

 

Sullivan's Island is Known as the Ellis Island of Slavery

 

Known as the Ellis Island of Slavery




Africans in Carolina, Lowcountry Digital History Initiative


A Port of Entry for Enslaved Africans
40 percent of all enslaved Africans brought to British North America entered here


Middle Passage Ceremonies and Port Markers Project

  • Identifying all ports of entry for Africans during the 350 years of the Atlantic Slave Trade

 

 

Link to Origins of the Atlantic Slave Trade

 

Primary Sources on The Transatlantic Slave Trade

 

 

Angel Island, San Francisco (1910-1940)

 

Immigration Station, Angel Island, San Francisco Bay

 



About Angel Island

Known as the Ellis Island of the West

Built to handle influx of European immigrants coming to California through the Panama Canal that never happened; instead majority of immigrants came from China, Japan and other parts of Asia and they were detained for weeks or months at the station

Wong Chung Hong was the first recorded person to enter the country after being admitted and detained at Angel Island.

Native Americans from the Muwekma Ohlone tribe were the first inhabitants of the island

 


Japanese Immigrants, 1860 to 2008

Discovering Angel Island: The Story Behind the Poems, a lesson plan on realities of immigration through Angel Island.

For more on Angel Island, see United States History II.3 on immigration after the Civil War,


When the "Enemy" Landed at Angel Island, National Archives, Summer 2009

  • Discusses the arrival of non-Asian immigrants at Angel Island during the early 20th century

 

 

Link to Dramatic Event page on Chinese Immigration to the United States

 

Pelican Island, Galveston Texas

 

Former Immigration Station, Galveston, Texas
Former Immigration Station, Galveston, Texas


Forgotten Gateway: Coming to America through Galveston Island, Houston Museum of Natural Science

Ellis Island on the Gulf: Remembering the Galveston Movement, Houston Public Media

 

  • Between 1907 and 1915, 10,000 Jewish Immigrants from the Russian Empire passed through the Port of Galveston
    • Fleeing persecution and death in Europe 

 

 

 

Galveston Immigration Database from Galveston Historical Foundation

Records Open Window to Immigration PastHouston Chronicle (April 25, 2015)

The Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900

  • The deadliest natural disaster and hurricane in U.S. history

 

 


external image SW_QuarantineOld_5_750px.jpg

Columbia River Quarantine Station, Washington State


Known as the Ellis Island on the Columbia River


Columbia River Quarantine Station at Knappton is Established, May 9, 1899, Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History


Columbia River's Ellis Island: The Story of Knappton Cover, Washington State Library


 

 

Link to dramatic event page The 1918 Influenza Pandemic

 

 

The American/Mexican Border

 

Image from Business Insider

 

The border is 1993 miles long

 

 

How Crossing the U.S. Mexico Border Became a Crime

 

  • For most of American history, immigrants could enter the United States without official permission and not fear criminal prosecution by the federal government

 

  • That changed with the Immigration Act of 1929

 

 

 

How We Got Here: The Roads We Took to America, Houston Institute for Culture


Link to Mexican Immigration to the United States

5 Facts About Mexico and Immigration to the United States, Pew Research Center (February 11, 2016)

 

The U.S. border fence near El Paso, Texas


The U.S. border fence near El Paso, Texas
Using Military at the U.S. - Mexican Border, an interesting lesson plan (for older students) from PBS about Esequiel Hernandez, a young man shot down by Marines at the border.

 

Link to Puerto Rico:  History and Government for information on Puerto Rican Citizenship

 

 

 

Further Reading:
Contemporary Immigrant Gateways in Historical Perspective, focusing on 'settlement trends of immigrants during the periods that bookend the twentieth century, both eras of mass migration', an article by Audrey Singer.

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