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Independence for South American Nations

Page history last edited by Robert W. Maloy 7 months ago

 

Focus Question:  When did South American countries become independent nations and how was independence achieved?

 

Simón Bolívar - First President of Bolivia 

 

 

 

Independence and the Countries of South America



Argentina (Buenos Aires)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain
  • How independence was won: weakening Spanish strength in Europe led to an unmonitored colony with increasing self-rule; independence declared.
  • When: 1816, as the United Provinces of the Rio Plata, which included Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay.
  • Key leaders or events: 1806—1807 Spain was controlled by France and Napoleon, so Britain attacked Buenos Aires; but was defeated by local forces with no help from Spain. France captured Spain’s king Ferdinand VII, and Argentina came under a local viceroy. The locals hated the viceroy, first declaring their allegiance to Ferdinand, then declaring independence in 1816.

 


Bolivia (La Paz)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain
  • How independence was won: civil war/ independence movement led by Simon Bolivar
  • When: 1825


Brazil (Brasilia)

  • Former ruling nation: Portugal
  • How independence was won: Portugal’s Prince Regent’s son took control and declared independence.
  • When: 1822
  • Key leaders or events: 1807, Napoleon was going to attack Lisbon, so the Prince Regent Dom Joao escaped to Brazil. In 1821, he returned, but left his son Dom Pedro I in charge of Brazil. In 1822, Dom Joao reduced Brazil’s status from the seat of power to a colony once again, but his son rebelled, and declared the nation’s independence from Portugal.



Chile (Santiago)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain
  • How independence was won: seven years of civil war
  • When: 1817
  • Key leaders or events: the Mapuche people had control of part of Chile throughout its history which was never under Spanish control. They helped the region into the mid-1900s, when the Chilean government won control of the whole nation.


Colombia (Bogota)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain
  • How independence was won: civil war/ independence movement led by Simon Bolivar
  • When: 1819



Ecuador (Quito)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain
  • How independence was won: civil war; the decisive Battle of Pichincha was won by Simon Bolivar.
  • When: 1822 or 1825
  • Key leaders or events: Simon Bolivar united Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela to create the state of Gran Colombia. The state lasted for eight years, when the three nations split.


French Guiana (Cayenne)


Guyana (Georgetown)

  • Former ruling nation: Holland, then Britain
  • How independence was won: granted by the British after decades of internal unrest.
  • When: 1966
  • Key leaders or events: 1928—British Guyana became a Crown Colony with a governor. 1928-1936—labor unrest and strikes. In 1947 the Brisit Guiana Labor Party won seats in parliament with limited voting rights for local citizens; in 1953 the People’s Progressive Party was elected in the first election that allowed all adults to vote. Six months later, British troops took PPP leaders into custody and took over the capital, Georgetown. A new constitution negotiated with the British allowed for internal self-government in 1961. There was political and labor unrest, with riots and strikes, in the first half of the 1960s. In 1966, the British Parliament passed the Guyana Independence Act 1966, granting full independence.


Paraguay (Asuncion)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain
  • How independence was won: the Spanish colonists throw out their Spanish governor and declare independence.
  • When: 1811
  • Key leaders or events: In 1810, the town of Buenos Aires declares its independence, and tries to force Paraguay to do the same, under the leader of the Argentinean army, Manuel Belgrano. The Spanish governor in Asuncion tries to get help from the Portuguese to ward off the Argentineans, and the local colonists are so incensed by this alliance, they throw the governor out and declare their independence.


Peru (Lima)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain
  • How independence was won: civil war/ independence movement led by Simon Bolivar
  • When: 1825



Suriname (Paramaribo)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain


Uruguay (Montevideo)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain


Venezuela (Caracas)

  • Former ruling nation: Spain
  • How independence was won: civil war/ independence movement led by Simon Bolivar
  • When: 1821
  • Key leaders or events: Simon Bolivar was born in Venezuela, who teamed with British mercenaries to eventually overthrow the Spanish in much of South America. Venezuela still disputes its border with former British colony Guyana.




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